Which sampling procedures (select from among all probability or nonprobability types) are illustrated in the following situations?
a. Mr. Brown decides to assess his teachers’ attitudes toward teaching autistic children. He identifies the teachers who have such students and interviews them to determine their attitudes.
b. In this study Dr. Mathews wants to report to the board of education about the achievement of ESL students. He first identifies all the ESL students and then chooses 10 percent of them.
c. Vicki Paris decides to do a study comparing children with high self-efficacy to those with low self-efficacy in order to see if there are differences in motivation and engagement. She identifies four classes to participate and surveys all the students in these classes.
d. Paul Gerber is investigating the relationship between type of community (urban, rural, or suburban) and size of school. He obtains a list of all schools in the state, identifies each as urban, rural, or suburban, and then randomly selects 30 schools from each of the three categories.
e. Lisa Abrams is conducting a study on the attitudes of faculty. She wants to know if there is a relationship between tenure status and job satisfaction and finds 54 faculty in her institution who are willing to complete the survey.
f. In a study of high-stakes testing and student motivation, Dr. Hall identifies a group of schools with high student motivation (n 34) and a group with low student motivation (n 55). Dr. Hall then compares the achievement scores of the two groups of schools.
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