1. In the following table briefly describe each of the legal and ethical considerations and their importance in the health and community services area. In your answer to each, make sure you refer to the role of communication.
2. It is important that community services workers avoid using discriminatory language when communicating with clients, colleagues and others in the sector. List three examples of how a person may discriminate against others in the way they are communicating with them.
1. Provide a definition of each type of communication and three examples of how a person may use the communication type in the work setting.
2. Explain the difference between motivational interviewing and a coercive approach.
3. Explain the difference between collaborative and confrontation.
Joan would like Mr Fisher to use a walking frame instead of his walking stick as he is getting unsteady on his feet. To do this she would like to use a motivational approach rather than a coercive approach.
In a paragraph, explain what Joan could say to Mr Fisher to motivate him to use the walking frame.
Mr Fisher’s daughter, Matilda charges up to Joan. ‘’Why isn’t my father being looked after properly? You let him fall over – he could have been badly injured. I’ve a good mind to take him out of this facility!’
How could Matilda have used a more collaborative approach? How would this have been an advantage to her father?
1. When working with a diverse range of people, we are bound to come across situations where we need to consider our communication approach. Use the table below to describe how you would respond to each situation.
2. Explain how each of the following factors influence communication. In your response, you should refer to both verbal and non-verbal communication.
You are a female support worker and you are visiting Giuseppe, a 70-year-old client. Today he is looking very uncomfortable. You notice that he is fidgety and keeps getting up to use the toilet. He must have gone 10 times so far. When you ask him if he is okay, he says, ‘Yes I’m fine’ and changes the subject.
(Giuseppe goes to the doctor the next day – he has an enlarged prostate and was not able to urinate properly.)
1. Why do you think that Giuseppe said he was ‘fine’ when he clearly wasn’t?
A friend, Elisabetta, comes to visit Giuseppe. She comes to you after the visit and says ‘What’s wrong with Giuseppe? Does he have prostate cancer? What treatment is he having?’
2. How should you answer Giuseppe’s friend?
As you leave the house, Elisabetta goes back to Giuseppe and you hear her saying, ‘Giuseppe, is everything all right? What did that carer do to you? Do I need to call their boss and make a complaint? You should have someone else look after you. I can do it.’
You hear Giuseppe telling her to stop worrying, everything is fine. Elisabetta keeps talking loudly at him.
3. After hearing this exchange you know that there is potential for problems. Why should you be concerned, and what should you do?
Choose a health and/or community services service that you are interested in.
1. Explain the function/purpose and structure of this service.
2. Explain how your chosen service interacts with at least two other services.
3. Is this service funded? What is one major source of funding?
4. Identify at least three different roles within your chosen service and explain their responsibilities.
Describe two ways in which each of the following digital media can be used effectively in a health and community services environment.
1. Provide an example of person-centred service delivery.
2. Provide an example of a multi-disciplinary team and how they work together in the best interests of their clients.
3. List two support services that can be accessed by clients and explain the role of each service.
4. Identify at least three different issues that may arise with multi-disciplinary work relationships or when working with people from different services.
Provide a definition for each of the following terms.
Rights-based service delivery
Basil is in palliative care. He has cancer, which causes him to suffer high levels of pain. He has a multi-functional team looking after his care.
The following people are members of his team. Explain the role of each one:
Personal care worker
1. We all know that grammar is important when communicating in the written form. However, it is also important to ensure you are using grammar correctly in your verbal communication. Identify at least three reasons why grammar is so important to verbal communication.
2. Identify two reasons why speaking too slow may be inappropriate.
3. Identify two reasons why speaking too fast may be inappropriate.
Hamish is Scottish and has recently come to Australia. He is working with older people. He has a very broad Scottish accent, which his clients find very difficult to understand.
How should Hamish communicate in a way that helps his clients to understand him?
List the steps involved in ethical decision making.
Maryanne has a new elderly client who is Lebanese. Yasmine does not speak much English but can understand common words. Normally her daughter, Mia, is present to translate for Yasmine.
Mia is running late. Maryanne has a lot to do and decides to go ahead and explain to Yasmine what support she is going to be providing her today. Yasmine speaks in Lebanese to Maryanne and says Mia’s name. Maryanne becomes frustrated because she is short on time and cannot wait for Mia to arrive. She raises her voice and says to Yasmine, ‘Do you understand what I am saying?’
Yasmine finally nods but it is clear that she is upset and just agreeing to stop Maryanne from being so frustrated.
When Mia arrives she is annoyed – Yasmine tells her that Maryanne was annoyed with her so she just nodded even though she didn’t know what was going to happen.
1. Explain how Maryanne’s conduct has led to a breach in informed consent. What do you think Maryanne should have done in this situation?
2. Often workers may be required to give information to their clients to help them make decisions about services or activities that can help meet their individual needs. List three sources of information that you may need to provide to clients to help them make informed decisions.
Maya is an Aboriginal lady from the Kimberley region. She lives in a small, remote community but has recently entered an aged care facility as she is seriously ill with cancer. She is not expected to live more than a few months. The closest aged care facility that could take her was four hour’s drive from her home. The facility has only one male Aboriginal worker, Benny. The rest of the personal care workers are all female non-Aboriginal people. Most of the residents at the facility are not Aboriginal.
Maya does not settle well into the facility. She does not eat the food unless it has been brought to her from her family. She likes to chat with Benny and tells him that he is the only one who understands how she feels about being so far away from home. She will not let Benny assist her with tasks such as dressing and bathing, however, as he is male. She often refuses to shower.
Other residents have complained that Maya is rude and often ignores them, and never looks them in the face. They also say she is dirty and they do not want to associate with her.
1. What issues does Maya face regarding communication with staff?
2. What issues does Maya face in communication with other residents?
3. What assistance can Benny give to other staff to assist them to communicate with Maya?
4. Is Maya being rude when she doesn’t look people in the face when talking to them? Explain your answer.
Benny explains the process that will happen when Maya is near death. Various members of her family will gather to be with her. On her death they will conduct a smoking ceremony to purify the room and remove bad spirits. The body will then be taken back to her homeland to be buried.
The health and safety officer says that he understands this is Maya’s custom, but the smoking ceremony cannot be undertaken in her room. This would set off the smoke detectors and other residents may complain about the smoke. He suggests they do the smoking ceremony when her body is back at home.
Benny rolls his eyes and walks out of the room in disgust.
5. What are Maya’s rights to the smoking ceremony?
6. List two things that Benny can do to support Maya to ensure that her rights are met.
7. List three things that Benny and the health and safety officer should do to resolve their differences.
8. Assume that Benny and the health and safety officer are still in disagreement. The health and safety officer says that Benny is being rude and indignant, and Benny says the health and safety officer is being discriminatory in their decision making. What should happen next?
Jet works in a Home and Community Care environment. One of Jet’s clients is Neil, a 19-year-old boy. Neil lives at home with his mother, stepfather and his younger brother Brett, who is almost 10.
Jet has been caring for Neil since he was 15, when he sustained severe injuries during a car accident, and they have developed a good client–carer relationship.
Neil’s mother works long hours in the city and his stepfather Vic works from home. His office is in a room adjacent to the garage.
One day Neil is quite upset and Jet is struggling to communicate with him. Neil keeps looking towards the hallway where the internal garage door is located. Jet realises he wants to say something, but appears concerned about Vic’s presence.
Finally Neil is able to disclose that he is worried about Vic abusing Brett. When Jet asks why, Neil states that Brett has been withdrawn and quiet lately. Jet asks Neil why he thinks there would be abuse, as there may be many reasons why Brett is so quiet.
It takes Neil some time and some difficulty, but he admits that he was abused by Vic when he was around Brett’s age. He is worried it might be happening again, but Brett won’t talk to him.
1. Does Jet have a duty of care to report this suspected abuse? What if Jet thinks that Neil is wrong about his assumptions?
2. List five indicators that might suggest a child is at risk of harm.
3. Mandatory reporting requires the reporting of suspected abuse. List the types of abuse that a mandatory reporter would need to communicate to authorities.
4. Imagine that Neil asked Jet to be the person who remains involved in the case while it is investigated. Jet knows this isn’t how things work. Write down what Jet should tell Neil in regards to his work role limitations in this situation.
Several days later Jet encounters Neil’s mother in the car park of his workplace. She abuses Jet loudly, telling him that he has destroyed their family by interfering, and how dare he believe such lies – Jet’s known Vic for years, he is not capable of such awful things! She tells Jet to ‘watch his back’, and hurries away.
Jet stands in the car park in shock. Several of his colleagues come up to him and give him support. He simply shakes his head, he can’t believe what just happened. She must have been waiting for him to finish his shift.
5. Explain what Jet should do in this situation.
ASSESSMENT TASK 2: ROLE PLAYS
Role Play 1 – NORNI and JIM
Norni and Jim talked frankly about ageing and death long before either of them reached old age. They both agreed that they did not want to be kept alive artificially and that they would like to refuse treatment when they no longer had a good quality of life.
When Jim entered residential aged care he specified his wish, which was recorded on his file. His wife had a medical power of attorney for him so that she could make decisions about his treatment if he was not able.
After a period of time his health worsened. He no longer knew his wife and suffered pain and discomfort. He suffered many chest infections.
After one particularly bad chest infection Norni spoke to Jim’s doctor and said that she no longer wanted his chest infections to be treated with antibiotics. The doctor knew Jim’s wishes and agreed that this was what he would have wanted.
His next chest infection was his last. He died peacefully and with dignity.
You are to participate in a role play with your assessor playing the role of Norni. You are to assume you were one of Jim’s care workers. Norni comes to your workplace to gather the rest of Jim’s belongings, and requests to see you. You go to Jim’s room, where she is packing up the last of his bits and pieces.
It has been three days since Jim passed away.
Role Play 2 – ELISABETTA
It is a week or so after you last saw Giuseppe (see Question 7 at Assessment Task 1) and you have returned to do some support activities for him.
As you leave Giuseppe’s home, his friend from last time appears at the front gate. She stands in your away and asks what’s going on, Giuseppe obviously hasn’t been well and he still hasn’t told her what’s wrong.
You are to participate in a role play with your assessor playing the role of Jim’s friend. Her name is Elisabetta. She is Giuseppe’s neighbour and from memory you believe her to be around 65 years old.
Role Play 3 – ELANA
You have been asked by your supervisor, Ian, to clean out the storeroom – it is starting to become a workplace hazard and he wants it cleaned up before someone is hurt or something gets damaged.
Nothing has been sorted and there is stuff all over the floor.
Ian tells you that Elana will help you clean up – she’s just on a break at the moment and will be down to help you in about 5 minutes when her break ends. He wants you to have it done within two hours.
Elana hates doing these types of jobs, she’ll do anything she can to do as little work as possible, and is often argumentative and rude. Elana is an administrative officer.
You go to the storeroom and start cleaning up.
Elana finally arrives 20 minutes later, long past her break time. You ask her where she has been, because you have been waiting for her to help you lift something that needs two people.
She immediately gets snappy with you and you can tell she’s got an attitude.
Your assessor will play the part of Elana. You must ask her to start helping you, because Ian wants everything cleaned up immediately to avoid any risk of accident or injury.
Following the role play, you will need to answer a set of verbal questions.